Environmental testing - Part 2-20: Tests - Test Ta and Tb: Test methods for solderability and resistance to soldering heat of devices with leads

IEC 60068-2-20:2021 is available as IEC 60068-2-20:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60068-2-20:2021 outlines Tests Ta and Tb, applicable to devices with leads and leads themselves. Soldering tests for surface mounting devices (SMD) are described in IEC 60068-2-58. This document provides procedures for determining the solderability and resistance to soldering heat of devices in applications using solder alloys, which are eutectic or near eutectic tin lead (Pb), or lead-free alloys. The procedures in this document include the solder bath method and soldering iron method. The objective of this document is to ensure that component lead or termination solderability meets the applicable solder joint requirements of IEC 61191-3 and IEC 61191-4. In addition, test methods are provided to ensure that the component body can be resistant to the heat load to which it is exposed during soldering. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- update of and clarification of pre-conditioning (former "aging") and its relation to natural aging.

Essais d’environnement - Partie 2-20: Essais - Essais Ta et Tb: Méthodes d'essai de la brasabilité et de la résistance à la chaleur de brasage des dispositifs à broches

IEC 60068-2-20:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60068-2-20:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60068-2-20:2021 décrit les essais Ta et Tb qui s’appliquent aux dispositifs à broches et aux broches elles-mêmes. Les essais de brasage des composants pour montage en surface (CMS) sont décrits dans l’IEC 60068-2-58. Le présent document fournit des procédures pour déterminer la brasabilité et la résistance à la chaleur de brasage des dispositifs dans les applications qui utilisent des alliages de brasure, qui sont soit des brasures étain plomb (Pb) eutectique ou quasi eutectique, soit des alliages de brasure sans plomb. Les procédures du présent document incluent les méthodes dites de bain de brasage et de fer à braser. Le but du présent document est d’assurer que les broches des composants ou la brasabilité de leurs bornes sont en mesure de satisfaire aux exigences applicables aux joints de brasures de l’IEC 61191-3 et de l’IEC 61191-4. De plus, des méthodes d’essai sont fournies pour assurer que le corps du composant peut résister à la charge calorifique à laquelle il est exposé pendant le brasage. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- mise à jour et clarification du préconditionnement (auparavant "vieillissement") et sa relation au vieillissement naturel.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Mar-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Mar-2021
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IEC 60068-2-20
Edition 6.0 2021-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Environmental testing –
Part 2-20: Tests – Tests Ta and Tb: Test methods for solderability and
resistance to soldering heat of devices with leads
Essais d’environnement –
Partie 2-20: Essais – Essais Ta et Tb: Méthodes d'essai de la brasabilité
et de la résistance à la chaleur de brasage des dispositifs à broches
IEC 60068-2-20:2021-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-20
Edition 6.0 2021-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Environmental testing –
Part 2-20: Tests – Tests Ta and Tb: Test methods for solderability and
resistance to soldering heat of devices with leads
Essais d’environnement –
Partie 2-20: Essais – Essais Ta et Tb: Méthodes d'essai de la brasabilité
et de la résistance à la chaleur de brasage des dispositifs à broches
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 19.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-9585-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Test Ta: Solderability of wire and tag terminations ........................................................... 8

4.1 Objective and general description of the test ........................................................... 8

4.1.1 Test methods ................................................................................................... 8

4.1.2 Specimen preparation ...................................................................................... 8

4.1.3 Initial measurements ....................................................................................... 9

4.1.4 Preconditioning ................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Method 1: Solder bath ........................................................................................... 10

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

4.2.2 Description of the solder bath ........................................................................ 10

4.2.3 Flux ............................................................................................................... 10

4.2.4 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 10

4.2.5 Test conditions .............................................................................................. 11

4.2.6 Final measurements and requirements .......................................................... 11

4.3 Method 2: Soldering iron at 350 °C ....................................................................... 11

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

4.3.2 Description of soldering irons ........................................................................ 11

4.3.3 Solder and flux .............................................................................................. 12

4.3.4 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 12

4.3.5 Final measurements and requirements .......................................................... 13

4.4 Information to be given in the relevant specification .............................................. 13

5 Test Tb: Resistance to soldering heat ............................................................................ 14

5.1 Objective and general description of the test ......................................................... 14

5.1.1 Test methods ................................................................................................. 14

5.1.2 Initial measurements ..................................................................................... 14

5.2 Method 1: Solder bath ........................................................................................... 14

5.2.1 Description of the solder bath ........................................................................ 14

5.2.2 Flux ............................................................................................................... 14

5.2.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 14

5.2.4 Test conditions .............................................................................................. 15

5.2.5 De-wetting ..................................................................................................... 15

5.3 Method 2: Soldering iron ....................................................................................... 16

5.3.1 Description of soldering iron .......................................................................... 16

5.3.2 Solder and flux .............................................................................................. 16

5.3.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 16

5.4 Recovery .............................................................................................................. 16

5.5 Final measurements and requirements .................................................................. 16

5.6 De-wetting (if required) ......................................................................................... 16

5.7 Information to be given in the relevant specification .............................................. 17

Annex A (informative) Example of apparatus for steam conditioning process ....................... 18

Annex B (normative) Specification for flux constituents ........................................................ 19

B.1 Colophony ............................................................................................................ 19

B.2 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol) ............................................................................... 19

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

B.3 Ethyl alcohol ......................................................................................................... 19

B.4 Flux composition ................................................................................................... 19

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 1 – Diagram of contact angle ....................................................................................... 7

Figure 2 – Position of soldering iron ...................................................................................... 12

Figure A.1 – Example of apparatus ....................................................................................... 18

Table 1 – Solderability, solder bath method: Test severities (duration and temperature) ....... 11

Table 2 – Resistance to soldering heat, solder bath method: Test severities (duration

and temperature) .................................................................................................................. 15

Table B.1 – Colophony based flux compositions ................................................................... 20

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-20: Tests –
Tests Ta and Tb: Test methods for solderability
and resistance to soldering heat of devices with leads
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60068-2-20 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 91: Electronics assembly

technology. It is an International Standard.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition published in 2008. This sixth edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) update of and clarification of pre-conditioning (former "aging") and its relation to natural

aging.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
91/1701/FDIS 91/1711/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60068 series, under the general title Environmental testing, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-20: Tests –
Tests Ta and Tb: Test methods for solderability
and resistance to soldering heat of devices with leads
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60068 outlines Tests Ta and Tb, applicable to devices with leads and leads

themselves. Soldering tests for surface mounting devices (SMD) are described in
IEC 60068‑2‑58.

This document provides procedures for determining the solderability and resistance to soldering

heat of devices in applications using solder alloys, which are eutectic or near eutectic tin lead

(Pb), or lead-free alloys.

The procedures in this document include the solder bath method and soldering iron method.

The objective of this document is to ensure that component lead or termination solderability

meets the applicable solder joint requirements of IEC 61191-3 and IEC 61191-4. In addition,

test methods are provided to ensure that the component body can be resistant to the heat load

to which it is exposed during soldering.

NOTE Information about wetting time and wetting force can be obtained by test methods using a wetting balance.

IEC 60068-2-69 (solder bath and solder globule method) can be consulted.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance
IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-66, Environmental testing – Part 2: Test methods – Test Cx: Damp heat, steady

state (unsaturated pressurized vapour)

IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests – Test Cab: Damp heat, steady state

IEC 61191-3, Printed board assemblies – Part 3: Sectional specification – Requirements for

through-hole mount soldered assemblies

IEC 61191-4, Printed board assemblies – Part 4: Sectional specification – Requirements for

terminal soldered assemblies
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
colophony

natural resin obtained as the residue after removal of turpentine from the oleo-resin of the pine

tree, consisting mainly of abietic acid and related resin acids, the remainder being resin acid

esters

Note 1 to entry: ”Rosin" is a synonym for colophony, and is deprecated because of the common confusion with the

generic term "resin".
3.2
contact angle

in general, the angle enclosed between two planes, tangent to a liquid surface and a solid/liquid

interface at their intersection (see Figure 1); in particular, the contact angle of liquid solder in

contact with a solid metal surface
Figure 1 – Diagram of contact angle
3.3
wetting
formation of an adherent coating of solder on a surface
Note 1 to entry: A small contact angle is indicative of wetting.
3.4
non-wetting
inability to form an adherent coating of solder on a surface
Note 1 to entry: In this case the contact angle is greater than 90°.
3.5
de-wetting
retraction of molten solder on a solid area that it has initially wetted

Note 1 to entry: In some cases, an extremely thin film of solder may remain. As the solder retracts the contact angle

increases.
3.6
solderability

ability of the lead, termination or electrode of a component to be wetted by solder at the

temperature of the termination or electrode, which is assumed to be the lowest temperature in

the soldering process within the applicable temperature range of the solder alloy

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021
3.7
soldering time
time required for a defined surface area to be wetted under specific conditions
3.8
resistance to soldering heat

ability of the component to withstand the highest temperature stress in terms of temperature

gradient, peak temperature and duration of the soldering process, where the temperature of the

component body is within the applicable temperature range of the solder alloy
3.9
lead-free solder

alloy that does not contain more than 0,1 % lead (Pb) by weight as its constituent and is used

for joining components to substrates or for coating surfaces

[SOURCE: IEC 60194-2:2017, 3.12.5, modified – The words "as its constituent" have been

added.]
4 Test Ta: Solderability of wire and tag terminations
4.1 Objective and general description of the test
4.1.1 Test methods

Test Ta provides two different test methods to determine the solderability of areas on wire and

tag terminations that are required to be wetted by solder during the assembly operation.

– Method 1: solder bath;
– Method 2: soldering iron.

The test method to be used shall be indicated in the relevant specification. The solder bath

method is the one which most closely simulates the soldering procedures of flow soldering and

similar soldering processes.
The soldering iron method may be used in cases where Method 1 is impracticable.

If required by the relevant specification, the test specimen shall be preconditioned according to

4.1.4. The following are typical methods for preconditioning:
Type 1a: 1 h steam
Type 1b: 4 h steam

Type 2: 10 days damp heat, steady state condition (40 ± 2) °C; (93 ± 3) % RH (Test Cab)

Type 3a: 4 h at 155 °C dry heat (Test Bb)
Type 3b: 16 h at 155 °C dry heat (Test Bb).
Type 4: 4 h unsaturated pressurized vapour (Test Cx)

NOTE 1 In general, the acceleration for ageing prior to solderability testing is estimated by simulating the

degradation in storage environment. However, the steam ageing condition does not correspond with storage

conditions because the failure mode derived from steam ageing is clearly different from that derived from storage

conditions. Therefore, an accelerated correlation between steam ageing and natural ageing in storage condition is

impossible and steam ageing conditions such as type 1a and type 1b are inappropriate as accelerated ageing.

NOTE 2 For Ni/Au surface, Type 2 or Type 4 is appropriate as preconditioning.
4.1.2 Specimen preparation

The surface to be tested shall be in the "as received" condition and shall not be subsequently

touched by the fingers or otherwise contaminated.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

The specimen shall not be cleaned prior to the application of a solderability test. If required by

the relevant specification, the specimen may be degreased by immersion in a neutral organic

solvent at room temperature.
4.1.3 Initial measurements

The specimens shall be visually examined and, if required by the relevant specification,

electrically and mechanically checked.
4.1.4 Preconditioning
4.1.4.1 General

If preconditioning is required by the relevant specification, one of the following procedures may

be adopted. At the end of the conditioning, the specimen shall be subjected to standard

atmospheric conditions for testing for not less than 2 h and not more than 24 h.

Terminations may be detached if the conditioning temperature is higher than the component's

maximum operating or storage temperature, or if the component is likely to degrade

considerably at 100 °C in steam and thus affect the solderability in a manner which would not

normally occur in natural ageing.
4.1.4.2 Type 1

The relevant specification shall indicate whether type 1a (1 h in steam) or type 1b (4 h in steam)

is to be used. For these procedures the specimen is suspended, preferably with the termination

vertical, with the area to be tested positioned 25 mm to 30 mm above the surface of boiling

distilled water which is contained in a borosilicate glass or stainless steel vessel of suitable size

(e.g., a 2 liter beaker). The termination shall be at least 10 mm from the walls of the vessel.

The vessel shall be provided with a cover of similar material, consisting of one or more plates

which are capable of covering approximately seven-eighths of the opening. A suitable method

of suspending the specimens shall be devised; perforations or slots in the cover are permitted

for this purpose. The specimen holder shall be non-metallic.

The level of water shall be maintained by the addition of hot distilled water, added gradually in

small quantities, so that the water will continue to boil vigorously; alternatively a reflux con-

denser may be used if desired. (See Figure A.1).

NOTE There are many problems for steam conditioning. For example, dew always condenses on the terminations

and liquid water directly drops onto specimens in some cases.
4.1.4.3 Type 2

Specimens are subjected to 10 days damp heat, steady state, according to IEC 60068-2-78,

Test Cab: Damp heat, steady state.
4.1.4.4 Type 3

Specimens are subjected to 4 h (Type 3a) or 16 h (Type 3b) dry heat at 155 °C according to

IEC 60068-2-2, Test B: Dry heat.

The test specimens may be introduced into the chamber at any temperature from laboratory

ambient to the specified temperature.
4.1.4.5 Type 4

Specimens are subjected to 4 h at 120 °C and 85 % RH according to IEC 60068-2-66, Test Cx:

Damp heat, steady state (unsaturated pressurized vapour).
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60068-2-20:2021 © IEC 2021
4.2 Method 1: Solder bath
4.2.1 General

This method provides a procedure for assessing the solderability of wires, tags, and termina-

tions of irregular form.
4.2.2 Description of the solder bath

The solder bath shall be of adequate dimensions to accommodate the specimens and contain

sufficient solder to maintain the solder temperature during testing, and to prevent exceeding

the contamination levels applicable to the type of solder used for testing. If not otherwise

defined by the relevant specification, the solder bath shall be not less than 40 mm in depth and

not less than 300 ml in volume. The bath shall contain solder as specified in Table 1.

NOTE 1 When the specimens are of a small size and heat capacity, a solder bath with dimensions less than

described above can be appropriate.

NOTE 2 Clause A.2 of IEC 60068-2-69:2017 can be consulted as an example of the solder bath corresponding to

NOTE 1.
4.2.3 Flux

A colophony based flux as described in Annex B shall be used. The flux shall be non-activated

(see Table B.1).

If non-activated flux is inappropriate, the relevant specification may require the use of a low

activated flux (see Table B.1).
4.2.4 Procedure

The dross on the surface of the molten solder shall be removed with a piece of suitable thermally

resistant material, immediately before each test, to ensure a clean and bright surface.

The termination to be tested shall be immersed first in the flux (described in 4.2.3) at ambient

temperature, and excess flux shall be eliminated either by draining off for a suitable time, or by

using any other procedure likely to produce a similar result. In case of dispute, drainage shall

be carried out for (60 ± 5) s.
NOTE It sometimes happen tha
...

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