This International Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the biomass content in solid
recovered fuels: the selective dissolution and the 14C content method. The standard provides the
criteria for choosing the more appropriate method and some examples of application.

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    • Standard
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      51 pages
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This International Standard defines terms and definitions concerned in all standardisation work within
the scope of ISO/TC 300, i.e. terms used in the field of production and trade of solid recovered fuels
that are prepared from non-hazardous waste.
NOTE Solid biofuels are covered by the scope of ISO/TC 238.
Definitions in other standards with a scope different from the scope of this International Standard can
be different from the definitions in this International Standard.

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    • Standard
      21 pages
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      18 pages
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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of carbon (C), hydrogen (H),
nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) by instrumental method. Depending on the amount of test portion used,
micro and macro instrumental apparatus are used.
An alternative method based on high temperature furnace combustion and IR detection is described in
Annex A.

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    • Standard
      20 pages
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      17 pages
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This Technical Specification defines requirements for provision by economic operators of the required evidence that biofuels and bioliquids fulfil the sustainability criteria as defined in the Renewable Energy Directive [1]. This Technical Specification is applicable to the initial biomass production or to the point of collection for waste and residue and to each stage within the chain of custody. It also defines requirements on conformity assessment bodies when checking compliance with the pres...view more

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    • Technical specification
      34 pages
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    • Technical specification
      34 pages
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This International Standard presents analytical methods for determination of the self-heating of solid biofuel pellets. The
standard specifies the applicability and use of the analytical methods. It further establishes special procedures for sampling
and sample handling of biofuels pellets prior to the analysis of self-heating. Guidance on the applicability and use of the
data on self-heating from the analytical methods is given.

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    • Standard
      36 pages
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      32 pages
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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications.
The standard covers the entire handling and storage process of pellets, (i) at a pellets production plant, from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation and (ii) at a power plant from the receiving station until fed into a pulverizer or furnace.
The process of production of pellets and safety issues related to pro...
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    • Standard
      131 pages
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      144 pages
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This International Standard describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small
scale applications and stores including preparation of sampling plans and certificates. Usually the focus
is on stores with a size of 100 t. The standard is applicable to the following solid biofuels:
- fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be
sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
- coarse or irre...
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    • Standard
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      22 pages
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This document specifies a method tor the determination of the characteristic
temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

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      21 pages
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      18 pages
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This European Standard specifies a detailed methodology that will allow any economic operator in a biofuel or bioliquid chain to calculate the actual GHG emissions associated with its operations in a standardised and transparent manner, taking all materially relevant aspects into account. It includes all steps of the chain from biomass production to the end transport and distribution operations.
The methodology strictly follows the principles and rules stipulated in the RED and particularly its...
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    • Standard
      43 pages
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This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications. This European Standard specifically considers some relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC [1], referred to as Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and in the European Commission Directive 2009/30/EC [2] referred to as Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), or in other European regulations.

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    • Standard
      31 pages
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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical com...
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    • Amendment
      7 pages
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    • Amendment
      4 pages
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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from the final loading point of the bulk transport to the end-user storage and specific requirements for the bulk transport. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This standard addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing and other health risks. It is applicable to woo...view more

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    • Standard
      58 pages
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This European Standard only defines procedures, criteria and indicators to provide the required evidence for:
-   production of raw material in areas for nature protection purposes;
-   harvesting of raw material from non-natural highly biodiverse grasslands; and
-   cultivation and harvesting on peatland.
This European Standard specifies requirements relevant for the provision of evidence by economic operators that the production, cultivation and harvesting of raw materials is in accordance with ...
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    • Standard
      28 pages
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This International Standard describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates and taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either:
⎯ fine (particle size up to about 10 mm) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled
using a scoop or pipe, for example:...
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    • Standard
      65 pages
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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel
at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of
certified benzoic acid.
The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of
the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure
and the water is either not c...
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    • Standard
      64 pages
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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of stone content of solid biofuels by the use of sink-and-float separation combined with elutriation. This International Standard is applicable to uncompressed solid biofuels, especially woody biomass (according to EN ISO 17225-1, Table 1), like wood chips and hog fuel.

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    • Standard
      13 pages
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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical com...
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    • Standard
      30 pages
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    • Standard
      30 pages
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This document describes the method of determining the total moisture content of a test sample of solid
biofuels by drying in an oven and is used when the highest precision is not needed, e.g. for routine
production control on site. The method described in ISO 18134 (all parts) is applicable to all solid
biofuels. The moisture content of solid biofuels (as received) is always reported based on the total mass
of the test sample (wet basis).

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    • Standard
      12 pages
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This standard describes the method for determining the particle density of compressed fuels such as pellets or briquettes. Particle density is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be standardised to enable comparative determinations to be made.

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    • Standard
      20 pages
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This international standard specifies the method of determining the content of fines in quantities of pellets by means of manual sieving with a sieve with an aperture of 3,15 mm.

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    • Standard
      12 pages
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This International Standard describes methods for the determination of the total sulfur and total
chlorine content in solid biofuels. This International Standard specifies two methods for decomposition
of the fuel and different analytical techniques for the quantification of the elements in the decomposition
solutions. The use of automatic equipment is also included in this International Standard, provided that
a validation is carried out as specified and that the performance characteristics...
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    • Standard
      19 pages
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This International Standard gives formulae which allow analytical data relating to solid biofuels to
be expressed on the different bases in common use. Consideration is given to corrections that can be
applied to certain determined values for solid biofuels prior to their calculation to other bases.
In Annex A, tools for integrity checks of analytical results are given. In Annex B, conversion factors for
calculation into other units are given. Annex C is a guideline for the use of validation...
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    • Standard
      18 pages
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This international standard describes method for determination of the the size distribution of particulate biofuels by the
horizontally oscillating screen method. It applies to particulate uncompressed fuels with a nominal top size of 1 mm and
above such as wood chips, hog fuel, olive stones etc. A sample is subjected to sieving through horizontally oscillating
sieves, sorting the particles in decreasing size classes by mechanical means.The sieving operation shall be horizontally
oscillating (on...
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    • Standard
      17 pages
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This international standard describes method for determination of the the size distribution of particulate biofuels by the
horizontally oscillating screen method. It applies to particulate uncompressed fuels with a nominal top size of 1 mm and
above such as wood chips, hog fuel, olive stones etc. A sample is subjected to sieving through horizontally oscillating
sieves, sorting the particles in decreasing size classes by mechanical means.The sieving operation shall be horizontally
oscillating (on...
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    • Standard
      16 pages
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This international standard describes the method for determination of the particle size of disintegrated pellets. The pellets
are disolved in water and dried after which the particles are sieved to determine the size of the particles constituting the
pellets.

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    • Standard
      16 pages
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This document aims to define the requirements and method used for testing the mechanical durability of briquettes. It is intended for persons and organisations that manufacture, plan, sell, erect or use machinery, equipment, tools and entire plants related to such briquettes, and to all persons and organisations involved in producing, purchasing, selling and utilising briquettes.
The durability is measure of the resistance of densified fuels towards shocks and/or abrasion as a consequence of han...
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    • Standard
      14 pages
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This document describes a method of determining bulk density of solid biofuels by the use of a standard measuring container. This method is applicable to all solid biofuels with a nominal top size of maximum 100 mm.
Bulk density is not an absolute value, therefore conditions for its determination have to be standandised in order to gain comparative measuring results.
Note 1: The nominal top size is defined as the aperture size of the sieve where at least 95 % by mass of the material passes (ISO ...
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    • Standard
      16 pages
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This document aims to define the requirements and method used for testing the mechanical durability of pellets. It is intended for persons and organisations that manufacture, plan, sell, erect or use machinery, equipment, tools and entire plants related to such pellets, and to all persons and organisations involved in producing, purchasing, selling and utilising pellets.
The durability is the measure of the resistance of compressed fuels towards shocks and/or abrasion as a consequence of handlin...
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    • Standard
      15 pages
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This document describes the methods for the determination of diameter and length of pellets. Concerning the pellet length methods for both determination of the proportion of oversized pellets and for the determination of the average length are included.

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    • Standard
      12 pages
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This document aims to define the requirements and method used to determine the volatile matter content of solid biofuels. It is intended for persons and organisations that manufacture, plan, sell, erect or use machinery, equipment, tools and entire plants related to solid biofuels, and to all persons and organisations involved in producing, purchasing, selling and utilising solid biofuels.
The volatile matter content is determined as the loss in mass, less that due moisture, when solid biofuel i...
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    • Standard
      16 pages
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This document specifies a method for the determination of ash content of all solid biofuels.

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    • Standard
      14 pages
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This document describes the method of determining the moisture in the analysis sample by drying the sample in an oven. It is intended to be used for general analysis samples according to ISO WD XXXXX (14780). The method described in this document is applicable to all solid biofuels.
Since biofuels in small particle size are very hygroscopic, their moisture content will vary with the change of humidity of the atmosphere and therefore, the moisture of the analyses sample should always be determine...
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    • Standard
      12 pages
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This document describes the method of determining the total moisture content of a sample of solid biofuels by drying in an oven and should be used when high precision of the determination of moisture content is necessary. The method described in this document is applicable to all solid biofuels.
The total moisture content of biofuels is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be standardised to enable comporative determinations to be made.

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    • Standard
      12 pages
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This I nternational Standard is intented for the determination of the minor elements As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in all solid biofuels. Further it describes methods for sample decomposition and suggests suitable instrumental methods for the determination of the elements of interest in the disgest. The determination of other elements as Se, Ti and Th is also possible with the method described in this International Standard.

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    • Standard
      19 pages
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This International Standard describes a method for the determination major elements of solid biofuels respectively of their ashes, which are Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Na and Tl. The determination of other elements such as Barium (Ba) and manganese (Mn) is also possible with the methods described in this International Standard.

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    • Standard
      21 pages
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This Standard describes a method for the determination of total carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents in solid biofuels

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    • Standard
      17 pages
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This International Standard describes a method for the determination of the water soluble chloride, sodium and potassium content in solid biofuels by extraction with water in a closed container and their following quantification by different analytical techniques.

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    • Standard
      15 pages
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This Standard specifies a method for the determination of the size distribution of particulate biofuels by the rotary screen method. The method described is meant for particulate biofuels only, namely materials that either have been reduced in size, such as most wood fuels, or are physically in a particulate form e.g. olive stones, nutshells, grain etc. This Standard applies to particulate uncompressed fuels with a nominal top size of 3,15 mm and over, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel, olive stones etc...view more

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    • Technical report
      12 pages
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EN ISO 16559 determines the terminology and definitions for solid biofuels. According to the scope of the ISO/TC 238 this standard only includes raw and processed material originating from - forestry and arboriculture, - agriculture and horticulture, - aquaculture Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are not within the scope but relevant terms are included for information. Areas covered by ISO/TC28/SC7 “Liquid biofuels” and ISO/TC193 “Natural gas” are ...view more

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    • Standard
      40 pages
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EN ISO 17225-2 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood pellets for non-industrial and industrial use. This part of ISO 17225 covers only wood pellets produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): - 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; - 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; - 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this par...view more

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    • Standard
      17 pages
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EN ISO 17225-3 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood briquettes. This part of ISO 17225 covers only wood briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): - 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood - 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry - 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood.

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    • Standard
      14 pages
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EN ISO 17225-5 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded firewood. This part of ISO 17225 covers only firewood produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): - 1.1.1 Whole trees without roots - 1.1.3 Stem wood - 1.1.4 Logging residues (thick branches, tops etc.) - 1.2.1 Chemically untreated wood residues.

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    • Standard
      18 pages
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EN ISO 17225-7 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody briquettes. This part of ISO 17225 covers only non-woody briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): - 2 Herbaceous biomass - 3 Fruit biomass - 4 Aquatic biomass - 5 Biomass blends and mixtures. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225-1, Table 1. I...view more

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    • Standard
      14 pages
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EN ISO 17225-4 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood chips. This part of ISO 17225 covers only wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): - 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood -1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry - 3.1 Chemically untreated used wood.

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    • Standard
      16 pages
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EN ISO 17225-6 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody pellets. This part of ISO 17225 covers only non-woody pellets produced from the following raw material (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): - 2 Herbaceous biomass - 3 Fruit biomass - 4 Aquatic biomass - 5 Biomass blends and mixtures. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225-1, Table 1. If solid...view more

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    • Standard
      15 pages
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EN ISO 17225-1 determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and processed materials originating from a) forestry and arboriculture; b) agriculture and horticulture; c) aquaculture. Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin.

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    • Standard
      64 pages
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This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of particulate solid recovered fuels by a machine or manual sieving method.

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    • Standard
      13 pages
      English language
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This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of particulate solid recovered fuels by a machine or manual sieving method.

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    • Standard
      12 pages
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This European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the biofuel specification is fulfilled. This European Standard covers the full chain, from supply of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user. According to the mandate given for the standardization work, the scope of the Technical Committee (TC 335) only includes solid biofuels originating from the following sources:
products from agriculture and f...
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    • Standard
      15 pages
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This European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the biofuel specification is fulfilled. This European Standard covers the full chain, from supply of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user. According to the mandate given for the standardization work, the scope of the Technical Committee (TC 335) only includes solid biofuels originating from the following sources:
products from agriculture and f...
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    • Standard
      16 pages
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